This site is not principal vocation to teach you anything about our universe, but I still wanted to expose here some figures and important facts about.

The universe in Figure

Distances

• Diameter of the Earth: 12.756 Km (source)
• Distance Earth / Sun: 149.597.870 Km approximately 11.727 times the diameter of the Earth. This distance is called astronomical unit (AU, AU, to the or to the). (source)
• Distance earth / moon: approximately 384,000 km (source)
• A light-year equals about 10,000 billion km or about 66.846 times the distance Earth / Sun. (source)
• The Andromeda Galaxy is the closest to ours, it is located at 2.55 million light-years away from our Sun, Km 25.500.000.000.000.000.000 (source)

Speeds

• The speed of light is of approximately 300,000,000 m/s is 1 079 252 848 km/h (source)
• The rotational speed of the Earth is about 1700 km / h at the equator, 1100 km / h in France and not far from the poles, the speed of rotation does not exceed 3 km / h. (source)
• The rotation speed of the Earth around the Sun is on average 106,000 km / h! That is 30 km / sec. (source)

Time

• Our planet Earth is 4.567 billion years (source)
• The earliest forms of life on earth are appeared there are 3.8 billion years, or around 800 million years after the formation of the Earth. (source)
• The genus Homo appeared on Earth there are about 2.8 million years (source)
• The Sun will turn into red giant in about 5.5 billion years resulting in the destruction of the planet Earth. The latter will be however more habitable for about 5 billion years when this land, because of radiation and heat emitted by the Sun. (source)
• The earth performs a complete rotation on itself in 24h. (source)
• The Earth performs a complete rotation around the Sun in 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes and 4 seconds (source)

Timeline

In red, the important facts in relation to astronomy, space and evolution of the human species.

-4.567.000.000: formation of planet Earth
-3,800,000,000: appearance of life on Earth
-2,800,000,000: appearance of the genus Homo on Earth
-230.000.000: appearance of the dinosaurs
-100 .000.000: appearance of bees
-3 .000.000: appearance of the size of the stone
-450,000: domestication of fire
-35,000: invention of the flute
-30,000: appearance of the first cave paintings
-13,000: domestication of dog
-10,000: foundation of the first village
-9200: domestication of sheep
-9000: appearance of the first ceramics
-9000: domestication of beef
-8000: appearance of agriculture
-7000: invention of the brick
-6000: invention of wine
-4500: domestication of the cat
-4000: appearance of navigation
-3500: invention of the wheel
-3400: appearance of writing
-3000: invention of the clepsydre
-3000: invention of the oil lamp
-2500: manufacture of glass
-2500: first use of bronze
-2000: invention of the key
-1600: appearance of the legend of the minotaur
-1500: invention of soap
-1500: invention of the sundial
-1250: invention of the die
-1240: Trojan horse building
-1200: invention of Chinese calligraphy
-800: the Iliad and the Odyssey, Homer
-680: invention of currency
-548: Theorem of Pythagoras (of Samos)
-400: invention of the crossbow
-397: invention of the catapult
-305: construction of the colossus of Rhodes
-287: construction of Alexandria lighthouse begins
-250: invention of the screw by Archimedes
-221: start of construction of the Great Wall of China
-200: invention of paper
-200: invention of the glass bottle
-200: invention of parchment
-100: creation of the Venus de Milo by Alexander of Antioch
-196: engraving of the Rosetta stone

82: inauguration of the Colosseum
570: Invention of Chess
825: invention of the windmill in Europe
900: invention of the hourglass
900: invention of playing cards
950: invention of black powder
972: invention of the fork
1090: appearance of the compass
1299: invention of spectacles
1313: invention of the canon by Berthold Schwarz
1377: The Legend of Robin Hood, William Langland
1437: Invention of printing by Johannes Gutenberg
1481: appearance of the nautical astrolabe
1492: appearance of the terrestrial globe (Martin Bechaim)
1492: discovery of America by the Europeans
1494: invention of whiskey
1498: appearance of the toothbrush
1504: invention of the watch by Peter Henlein
1548: design of the violin by Gaspard Duisfoprugscar
1553: invention of fencing
1593: invention of the thermometer by Galileo
1605: publication of the first newspaper (Relation) by Johann Carolus
1608: invention of the twins by Hans Lippershey
1608: invention of the telescope by Hans Lippershey
1610: invention of the table knife by Cardinal de Richelieu
1615: Invention of the microscope by Galileo
1643: invention of the barometer by Evangelista Torricelli
1653: invention of the mailbox by Jean-Jacques Renouard de Villayer
1664: invention of champagne
1668: La Fable The Raven and the Fox, Jean de la Fontaine
1679: invention of the diving suit by Giovani Alphonso Borelli
1679: invention of the minute-par by Denis Papin
1695: appearance of the cork
1697: Cinderella or the Glass Slipper, Charles Perrault
1705: invention of the folding umbrella by Jean Marius
1711: invention of the tuning fork by John Shore
1712: invention of the steam engine by Thomas Newcomen
1722: discovery of the Easter Island by the Europeans (expedition led by Jakob Roggeveen)
1725: music: The four seasons of Antonio Lucio Vivaldi
1735: invention of the chronometer
1741: Creation of the Celsius degree by Anders Celsius
1742: Appearance of check by Bank of England
1751: The encyclopedia, Volume 1, Denis Diderot and Jean d’Alembert
1752: invention of the lightning rod by Benjamin Franklin
1759: invention of shampoo
1760: creation of sign language
1762: Sandwich Invention by John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich
1763: appearance of the metal rail
1765: invention of the mechanical washing machine by Jacob Christian Shäffern
1769: invention of the car by Charles Cugnot
1770: invention of gum by Edward Naime
1770: invention of the safety razor by Jean-Jacques Perret
1775: invention of the submarine (Turtle) by David Bushnell
1776: invention of Hypnotism by Franz Anton Mesmer
1781: invention of French fries
1781: Discovery of Uranus by William Herschel
1782: invention of preserves by Nicolas Appert
1783: invention of the balloon by Joseph & Etienne Montgolfier
1790: Invention of Camembert by Marie Harel
1795: invention of corkscrews by Samuel Henshall
1795: invention of graphite pencil by Nicolas-Jacques Conté
1799: invention of the metric system
1800: invention of the electric battery by Alessandro Volta
1801: discovery of the asteroid by Giuseppe Piazzi
1802: invention of the coffee maker by Jean-Baptiste de Belloy
1804: invention of the locomotive by Richard Trevithick
1804: Napoleon crowned Emperor
1810: Composition of the Letter to Elise by Ludwig Van Beethoven
1810: invention of the tin
1812: the fairy tale Snow White, Jokob & Wilhelm Grimm
1816: invention of the stethoscope by René Laennec
1817: appearance of the velocipede by Karl Drais Von Sauerbronn
1818: Frankenstein, Mary Shelley
1821: Discovery of the Antarctic by John Davis
1822: decipherment of hieroglyphics by Jean-François Champollion
1825: invention of the helicopter by Gustave de Ponton d’Amécourt
1826: invention of the comic strip by Rodolphe Topffer
1827: creation of the friction match by John Walker
1828: invention of the pencil sharpener by Bernard Lassimone
1829: invention of the accordion by Cyril Demian
1830: invention of the bread baguette
1834: the invention of the refrigerator by Jacob Perkins
1834: the ninth symphony, Ludwig van Beethoven
1836: invention of the revolver by Samuel Colt
1837: invention of the telegraph by Samuel Finley Morse
1838: creation of Morse code by Samuel Finley Morse
1841: invention of the plunger syringe by Dr. Charles Gabriel Pravaz
1844: invention of the safe by Alexandre Fichet
1844: The Three Musketeers, Alexandre Dumas
1845: invention of the elastic by Stephen Perry
1846: invention of the Saxophone by Adolf Saxe
1847: invention of the alarm clock by Antoine Rédier
1858: invention of the can opener by Ezra Warner
1860: invention of the engine by Etienne Lenoir
1861: invention of the hammer by German Sommeiller
1862: The Wretched, Victor Hugo
1863: invention of the crescent
1863: invention of football
1865: The Adventures of Alice in Wonderland, Lewis Carroll
1866: appearance of the Winchester by Oliver Winchester
1866: first hold-up by Jessy James
1867: invention of dynamite by Alfred Nobel
1867: invention of the typewriter by Christopher Sholes
1867: The Capital – Volume 1, Karl Marx
1868: invention of signaling lights by JP. Knight
1868: invention of the motorcycle by Louis-Guillaume Perreaux
1869: discovery of the Panda by the Europeans, by Armand David
1869: 20,000 leagues under the sea, Jules Vernes
1872: painting Impression sunrise, Claude Monet
1873: Invention of jeans by Jacobe Davis & Levis Strauss
1874: the invention of the barbed wire by Joseph Glidden
1875: Opera: Carmen by Georges Bizet
1876: invention of the telephone by Graham Bell
1877: invention of the phonograph by Thomas Edison
1879: invention of the light bulb by Thomas Edison
1882: invention of electric iron by Henry W. Seely
1884: invention of the fountain pen by Lewis Edson Waterman
1884: invention of the trash by Eugène Poubelle
1885: creation of the vaccine against rabies by Louis Pasteur
1886: invention of the dishwasher by Joséphine Garis Cochrane
1887: Sherlock Holmes, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
1888: invention of the camera by Louis Le Prince
1889: Construction of the Eiffel Tower by Gustave Eiffel
1890: invention of the hair dryer
1891: invention of the zipper by Whitecomb Judson
1894: Creation of the clementine by Brother Clément
1894: invention of corn flakes by Doctor John Harvey Kellog
1895: creation of the cinematograph by Auguste and Louis Lumière
1895: creation of the T.S.F. By Guglielmo Marconi
1896: invention of the tube of toothpaste by Colgate & cie
1900: appearance of the zeppelin by Ferdinand von Zeppelin
1901: invention of the electric washing machine by Alva J. Fisher
1902: discovery of fingerprints by Alphonse Bertillon
1902: the trip to the moon, by Georges Meliès
1902: invention of the teddy bear by Morris Mitchom
1903: Invention of the plane by Wilbur & Orville Wright
1905: discovery of the first skeleton of Tyrannosaurus by Henry Fairfield Osborn
1905: invention of the toaster
1908: invention of the tea bag by Thomas Sullivan
1908: appearance of the Ford T by Henry Ford
1910: invention of the seaplane by Henri Fabre
1911: invention of the electric razor by Jacob Schik
1913: invention of crosswords by New York World
1914: first appearance of Charlot, Charlin Chapelin
1915: invention of the tank
1915: Invention of milk carton by John Van Wormer
1915: Theory of General Relativity by Albert Einstein
1921: first appearance of the Yeti
1922: Discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun by Howard Carter
1923: Invention of the adhesive tape by Richard G. Drew
1924: invention of the electric guitar by Lloyd Loar
1925: appearance of television by John Logie Baird
1928: discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming
1928: invention of the aerosol can by Eric Rotheim
1929: invention of sunglasses by Sam Foster
1935: invention of the pocket book
1938: invention of the ballpoint pen by Laszlo Biro
1938: Invention of color television by John Logie Baird
1938: first appearance of a superhero by Jerry Siegel & Joe Shuster
1938: invention of soluble coffee
1938: Invention of photocopier by Chester Carlson
1940: Appeal of 18 June by General Charles de Gaulle
1945: creation of the atomic bomb by Julius Robert Oppenheimer
1946: invention of the gas lighter by Marcel Quercia
1946: invention of the microwave oven by Percy Spencer
1947: invention of the transistor by J. Bardeen, W. Brattain & W. Shockley
1947: first appearance of a flying saucer by Kenneth Arnold
1949: launch of the single
1950: invention of the garbage bag by Harry Wasyly
1955: Film, the fury of living by Nicholas Ray
1956: Invention of the birth control pill by Grégory Pincus
1957: transmission of the Sputnik satellite
1957: Musical West Side Story
1961: first man in space by Youri Gagarin
1962: creation of the miniskirt by Mary Quant
1962: invention of the can with seal by Ermal Fraze
1963: invention of the plastic bottle
1963: invention of the computer mouse by Douglas Engelbart
1967: music: Sergeant Pepper by The Beatles
1969: first step on the moon of Neil Armstrong
1971: invention of the video game console by Ralph Baer
1973: invention of the mobile phone by Martin Cooper
1974: birth of Hip-Hop
1974: invention of the smart card by Roland Moreno
1974: creation of the first role-playing game by Gary Gigax
1974: invention of the Post-It by Spencer Silver & Arthur Fry
1974: invention of the sudoku by Howard Garns
1976: first probe on March, by NASA
1977: Movie: Star Wars by Georges Lucas
1978: invention of GPS
1979: invention of the Compact Disc
1981: Invention of the Laptop by Adam Osborne
1981: first flight of a space shuttle
1989: construction of the Louvres Pyramid
1997: Film, Titanic of James Cameron
1999: Creation of the euro

Source: “Histoire de romans” + many additions

That is what… ?

A natural satellite? A natural satellite is a celestial object orbiting around an object larger than itself and which is not of human origin. (source)
A planet? A planet is a celestial orbiting a star and to be relatively spherical and eliminated all rival body moving in a close orbit. (source)
An Exoplanet? An Exoplanet is simply a planet is not located in our solar system. (source)
A star? A star is a gaseous celestial body that radiates its own light by nuclear fusion reactions, or bodies that have been in this State at a stage of their life cycle, as white dwarfs or neutron stars. (source)
A planetary system? In astronomy, a planetary system (sometimes confused with star system) is a system composed of planets, as well as various celestial inert bodies such as asteroids and comets, orbiting a star. The solar system is an example of a planetary system. By extension, and improperly, the term “solar system” is sometimes used to refer to other planetary systems. (source)
A star system? A stellar system consists of a small number of stars that are linked by gravitational attraction, and as a result orbit around the other1. The stars that make up a star system are called components. Depending on the number of stars, to system binary, triple (or ternary), quadruple, etc. A large number of stars bound by gravitation is generally referred to as a cluster of stars or a Galaxy. Note that in the broad sense, this is also of star systems. Also sometimes misused the term stellar system to refer to a single star has a planetary system of smaller bodies in orbit around it. (source)
A Galaxy? A Galaxy is an assemblage of stars, gas, dust and dark matter, sometimes containing a supermassive black hole at its centre. (source)
A constellation? A constellation is an arbitrary shape formed by linking several stars between them, similar to an animal or a character (ex: Lion, Hydra, etc). Told of a star (or any other celestial object) that it is “in” a constellation when observed from the Earth within it (without for as long as she is physically as a constellation is a projection of a region of the universe on a plan). (source – carlm)
A Nebula? A Nebula is an astronomical object consisting of gas and/or interstellar dust that may result from the explosion of a star. (source)

How… ?

Form a star?
Form a planet?
The Moon formed? One of the most supported theory on the formation of the Moon is the collision of an object named Theia with planet Earth, matter expelled by this cataclysm would have formed our moon. (source)

Important points

• Nothing goes faster than the speed of light. However two point of the universe (as for example two galaxies) may move away from the other faster than the speed of light (due to the expansion of the universe). (source: conversation Etienne KLEIN / Alexandre ASTIER of the Exoconference of Alexandre ASTIER Bonus DVD)